عرض تقديمي عن الموضوع: "المحاضرة الرابعة التعلم التعاوني"— نسخة العرض التّقديمي:
1 المحاضرة الرابعة التعلم التعاوني 15 ربيع الأول 1429 هـ
2 مقدمة التعليم التعاوني Cooperative Education التدريس التعاوني Cooperative Teachingماهو التدريس التعاوني؟لماذا التعاون يزيد من التحصيل والدافعية للتعلم.لماذا تنجح الأعمال الجماعية أكثر من الفردية؟ماهي خصائص الشخصية السوية؟كيف يتعامل الأقران من أجل التعلم؟
3 ماهو التدريس التعاوني العمل كمجموعة. التعلم من الأقران. حجم المجموعات. إيجاد جو التنافس.الإعداد الجيد.المعلم موجه.
4 لماذا التدريس التعاوني؟ البعد الاسلاميالدعوة للتعاون.التعاون على الخير.حب الاجتماع ونبذ التفرق.حب الجماعة ونبذ الفردية.
5 لماذا التدريس التعاوني؟ البعد الواقعييستمتع ويتعلم التلاميذ من أقرانهم أكثر منه من معلمهم!.التعاون يؤدي إلى زيادة التعلم.التنافس هو السر الخفي وراء الحافز للتعلم.
7 لماذا التدريس التعاوني؟ البعد الاجتماعيتنمية الشخصية الاجتماعية الفاعلة.احترام الرأي الآخر.التعارف بين التلاميذ.تنمية العمل الجماعي ومحبة العمل مع الآخرين.العلاقات الاجتماعية.وسائل فائقة للنمو العقلي.
8 تنظيم التدريس التعاوني تنظيم المجموعات.المجموعات الفاعلة.تنظيم التفاعل بين التلاميذ.التفاعل اللفظي والتفاعل العملي.مهارات جمع المعلوماتتلخيص العمل.
9 حجم المجموعات المجموعات الكبيرة المجموعات الصغيرة. الأزواج. المجموعات الدائمة.المجموعات المتغيرة.المجموعات المشكلة.
10 بناء العمل التعاوني الأسئلة الخمسة: 1- ماذا أعرف؟ 2- ماذا أريد أن أعرف؟3- كيف سأتعلم، وكيف سأعمل مع الآخرين؟4- ماذا تعلمت؟5- كيف تعاونت، وماذا تعلمت مع الآخرين؟
11 مهارات التدريس التعاوني مهارات التحرك.مهارات الجلوس.مهارات التحدث بصوت منخفض.مهارات المشاركة والتعريف بالاهتمامات.مهارات الإيجابية نحو الآخرين.مهارات تعليم إشارات السكوت.مهارات الأسئلة العميقة.مهارات استنباط العلاقات بين الأشياء.مهارات معارضة الأفكار لا الاشخاص.مهارات توسيع الأفكار.مهارات دمج الأفكار.؟
12 أدوار المعلم في التدريس التعاونيالإعداد الجيد قبل الدرس.تخطيط الدرس.جدولة العمل.إعداد الأدوات.إعداد البيئة.توزيع المجموعات.تقديم الدرس.متابعة عمل المجموعات.المراجعة الدائمة وإعطاء التعليمات.التحرك بين المجموعات.مناقشة المجموعات.تقويم عمل المجموعات والدرس.غلق الدرس.
13 تحليل التدريس التعاوني حديث المعلم لكل الفصل.حديث المعلم لكل مجموعة.مناقشة المعلم لكل مجموعة.حديث كل تلميذ مع المعلم.حديث التلميذ مع المجموعة.حديث التلميذ مع التلميذ.الصمت.الفوضى.
14 Using “The Fishbowl” to share experiences Discussion activity suitable for large groupsAllows the whole group to participate in one conversation and share, listen to, and critique viewpoints and experiencesEliminates reporting backLeading Academic Development, Adele Graham (02/08)Leading Academic Development, o2/o8, Adele Graham
15 Fishbowl instructions Four volunteers to start the discussion “Academic Development in Saudi Arabia” (notes as prompts)Participants who are outside the fishbowl may want to contribute their experiences/views to the conversation or ask a question. They can do so by taking up the empty chairWhen the empty chair becomes occupied, someone already in the fishbowl must leaveIf you are inside the fishbowl and want to leave, you can do so by tapping-in someone outside the fishbowl to take your placeCAD staff who have a question can take up the empty-chair but leave when it is addressed. No- one leaves if CAD joins.If you do not join the fishbowl, be ready to provide a summary of the discussionLeading Academic Development, o2/o8, Adele GrahamLeading Academic Development, Adele Graham (02/08)
16 Leading Academic Development, Adele Graham (02/08) Questions aboutWhat you have just heard“The Fishbowl” activityLeading Academic Development, Adele Graham (02/08)
17 Leading Academic Development, 02/08/Graham Co-operative Learning in Action Sharing Learning about CAD’s Introduction to University Teaching & Learning ProgrammeLeading Academic Development, 02/08/Graham
18 Using the Jigsaw method … You self-selected into “expert groups”Expert groups were given a learning task which involved participating in different workshopsExpert groups now work together ( )New groups will be formed and experts will teach each other what they learned ( )There will be some check to see if the intended learning outcomes were achieved ( )
19 Expert groups: Sharing information Question by questionCompare your responses, agree on salient points and examplesPlan your strategy for teaching your colleagues who attended other classes (15 mins teaching including questions)Your dataIn relation to the topic, what might a new teacher (i) know and (ii) be able to do from attending this workshop?What teaching methods and activities did the academic developer use?How would you describe the relationship between the academic developer and the participants?Anything else that “strikes” you?
20 Teaching othersForm into new groups to teach each other what you learned in the workshop and discussed in your expert groupFollow this schedule… (15 minutes)… (15 minutes) Teacher is the time keeperIf you finish in less than15 minutes, wait until you are given the signal to move onto the next topic
21 Learning check About the content Any “lessons” about preparing, supporting and working with new staff?Your questionsAnything still unanswered?
22 A Close-Up Look at Co-operative Learning and the Jigsaw Method Leading Academic Development, 02/08/Graham
23 Co-operative learning Five elements:Clearly perceived positive interdependence (sink or swim together)Individual accountabilityFace-to-face interactionIndividual and small group skillsGroup processingStudents advance their own and each others’ learning
24 Potential outcomes… Academic benefits Skills for employment & life Increased academic achievementMore academic discussion outside of the classroomLonger information retentionBetter higher level reasoningBetter understanding of alternative viewpointsImproved critical thinkingHigher motivationSkills for employment & lifeImproved social & communication skillsBetter teamwork skillsLeadership practiseIndependent learning skills
25 Jigsaw is a Co-operative Learning Method. The class is divided into groupsGroups are given different learning tasks and plan what needs to be done to complete the taskWork is done either in or out of classNew groups are formed and group members teach each other what they have learnedSome check is put in place to ensure accurate understandingRead Ledlow’s article for more detail
26 Using Jigsaw, Example 1Short course: 10 Activities to Get Students to Talk in ClassIntended learning outcomesParticipants learn how to use the Jigsaw in their own classesParticipants learn different ways to get students to ask and answer questionsTime frame: About 45 minutes
27 Jigsaw, Example 1 Step 1: Form expert groups 1. Remember the number you are given2. Form groups with other participants who have the same number as youv333322221111
28 Jigsaw, Example 1 Step 2: Introductions and preparation 1111If you have not already met, take turns to introduce yourself to your groupRead the activity you have been givenIn the next 10 minutesMake sure you each understand the activity/activities that have been describedDecide whether you think it would be useful to use with students at your CollegeCome up with any suggestions for improvement22223333
29 Jigsaw, Example 1 Step 3: Learning from each other Form into new groups (diagram)Drawing on the discussion within your last group, take turns to:Explain your activity to your new groupGive your previous group’s opinion on(i) its usefulness (ii) suggestions for improvement(5 mins with questions… Adele is the timekeeper)Follow this order (i) Group 1 (ii) Group 2 (iii) Group 3123123123123
30 Jigsaw, Example 1 Step 4: Check on learning Five “volunteers” to finish any one of these stems…The activity that would be most useful to me…Something I have been thinking about in relation to the way I typically ask questions…I don’t think [activity] would work with my class because….The most important learning I got from this exercise is….
31 Using Jigsaw, Example 2Introduction to University Teaching 1 (New staff)Intended learning outcomes:Participants learn about campus services and resourcesParticipants learn how to use the Jigsaw in their own classesTime frame: Several hours, across two classes
32 Class One, Monday… following a seminar on theJigsaw Method
33 Jigsaw, Example 2 Finding out about… Student Affairs Office, particularly Student Counselling Services and Complementary Studies ProgrammesPolyU resources and services that aim to develop students’ learning skills (EDC, ELC, Library)Services for improving students’ English skills (ELC and ENGL)Opportunities for improving your teaching skills (EDC)There are other important resources/services to find out for yourself
34 Jigsaw, Example 2 Step 1: Form expert groups Form groups with other students who have a task sheet that is the same colour as yours. No more than 6 in a group.
35 Introduce yourselves if you have not already met Jigsaw, Example 2 Step 2:Introduce yourselves if you have not already metRead your task sheet and agree with your group members about:What needs to be doneWho will do itAsk Adele or Wincy for help if you need it
36 Student Affairs Office: 1. Your task as a small group is to find out as much as you can aboutStudent Counselling Services offered by SAOThe Complementary Studies Programme2. As a group, you need to now plan how you will collect the information and who will do what (e.g., WWW search, phone or visit for information, talk to experienced colleagues or? or? or?)Bring along your information tomorrow because you will need to synthesise it, then share it with other participants who are working on different services.Ask Wincy or Adele if you don’t know where to start
37 PolyU resources for developing students’ learning skills 1. Your task as a small group is to find out as much as you can about what resources are available across campus tohelp students learn to learnprevent student plagiarismimprove students information literacy skills2. As a group, you need to now plan how you will collect the information and who will do what (e.g., WWW search, phone or visit for information, talk to experienced colleagues or? or? or?)Bring along your information tomorrow because you will need to synthesise it, then share it with other participants who are working on different services.Ask Wincy or Adele if you don’t know where to start
38 Service for improving English skills Your task as a small group is to find out as much as you can about what help is available to students to help them improve their written and spoken English.As a group, you need to now plan how you will collect the information and who will do what (e.g., WWW search, phone or visit for information, talk to experienced colleagues or? or? or?)Bring along your information tomorrow because you will need to synthesise it, then share it with other participants who are working on different services.Ask Wincy or Adele if you don’t know where to start
39 Opportunities for developing your teaching skills Your task as a small group is to find out as much as you can about what help is available to develop/enhance your teaching skills and knowledge.As a group, you need to now plan how you will collect the information and who will do what (e.g., WWW search, phone or visit for information, talk to experienced colleagues or? or? or?)Bring along your information tomorrow because you will need to synthesise it, then share it with other participants who are working on different services.Ask Wincy or Adele if you don’t know where to start
40 Jigsaw, Example 2 gentle Reminder We start at 1pm tomorrow! (to give you time to do your homework in the morning!)Be on time. Your group needs you to complete the task.Bring your information
41 Process and ContentOur aim is to immerse you in an “active classroom” (theory in practise)We are using the Jigsaw Method (a Co-operative Learning Activity) to learn about resources and services that support student learning and your teaching
42 Jigsaw, Example 2 Reviewing the “Jigsaw” using a “Round”.. Since we started on this TLA (teaching and learning activity), what skills have been required of you?
43 Divide class into groups Groups plan what needs to be done Jigsaw, Example 2 Steps…Divide class into groupsGroups plan what needs to be doneOut of class workand coming upShare and organise information in your ‘expert’ groupsShare information with others in the class
44 Jigsaw, Example 2 Step 4: Sharing and synthesising your research Share with your expert group what you have learned from your overnight researchPlan and prepare an A3 Poster (photocopies for each group member will be made) that captures your learning (1hr 15mins)(LATER, each group member will present their research/poster to another group)
45 Jigsaw, Example 2 Reviewing the “Jigsaw” so far… A question I have ….Something that bothers me …A skill that was demanded in Step 4…
46 Jigsaw, Example 2 Step 5: Teaching others Form into new groups to teach each other what you learned in your expert groupFollow this schedule… (0-15)…. (15-30) Teacher is the time keeper… (30-45)…. (45-60)If you finish in less than15 minutes, wait until you are given the signal to move onto the next topic
47 Jigsaw, Example 2 Reviewing the “Jigsaw” Reactions to Step 5?
48 Jigsaw, Example 2 Step 7: Learning check Instructions:Step 1: By yourself, complete the test (there may be more than one correct answer for each question) (about 5 minutes)Step 2: Reassemble into your “expert” team, appoint a “recorder”, and compare your answersStep 3: The recorder places the team’s answers on the whiteboard once agreement is reached.Step 4: The recorder will be advised if there is an incorrect answer. In this case, teams must renegotiate answers. Resource documents can be used in second and successive attempts to “pass” the test.
49 Jigsaw, Example 2 Step 7: alternative Learning check About the contentThe most important thing you have learned about services and resources?About the processMight you use it in your own classes?If so, what topic and how might you adapt it?
50 About YOUR Experience and Thoughts Would you use the Jigsaw in the work that you do?Would it be suitable for your teachers to use with their students?